God takes a great interest in averages
Decision making principles in management
First of all, let's describe the basic mechanisms of interaction between people, a sort of materials used for joining the bricks of management hierarchy, our company, family and state relations. There are three of them: I can order someone to do something - authoritarizm, I can ask someone to do something on certain conditions or without them - compromise, I can wait until my partner takes the initiative and performs corresponding actions - consensus.
Consensus is a Japanese style of decision-making, i.e. keep discussing until the decision appears and becomes obvious, or until any participant takes the responsibility for some decision. Thus, the decision is accepted only in case it is clear for all the participants or at least for several ones.
This system of decision-making is the most effective one from the point of view of the minimization of risk. It is characterized by a strong discipline of its participants, and consequently high product quality. However this system is rather slow, having a high risk of refusal and breakdown in strong dynamic processes. As a rule, such management systems are used on the top management level. One of the important criteria of its use is almost equal social position of the participants. However, the last thesis is not always obligatory, but the involving of less socially provided members requires professional growth prospects (career - it is like the Japanese experience, is not it?). In Russia this system is used as a means of operation for one of the two reasons: either it does not suggest any growth prospects, or the latter do not assume growth of social well-being.
Human factor in the given system almost does not influence the decision making, because the decision, even though accepted by one person, is supposed to represent the essence of a collective product of thinking, because every member believes in the correctness of accepted decisions. The automatic control systems of similar processes should be flexible. For the systems of OLAP type, including a lot of factors, when it is important to collect as more information as possible on the examined phenomenon, it is highly recommended to use Data Mining technologies. However, the latter can be best applied for very simple and mobile interfaces. In other cases it is possible to involve analysts, who can use the listed tools, operatively collect the indispensable data and prepare qualitative reports or reviews.
|Renew 31.12.2012 At reprint of site materials, reference to the source is obligatory! © 2016 Pavel A. Bobrovnikov|
Decision making principle based on mutual arrangements or
Decision making principle based on mutual belief or
The hierarchy is set of the co-operating elements, connected the relation 'main-subordinated'. Information, material, financial and other streams pass in hierarchy through the basic level, thus elements at one level are isolated from independent decision-making. All characteristics of hierarchy are consequence of the centralisation principle.
Management needs ability of the person to be realized first of all strategic or through their understanding tactical plans in terms when these plans make sense.
System is set of environment elements in which there is observer and for which it can specify interaction laws.
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